Official Name: Syria
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- Helping to prepare your documents
- Start to finish your company registration process
- Immigration services
Syria: A Mosaic of History, Culture, and Socio-Political Complexities
History:Syria, located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, has a history dating back to ancient times. The region witnessed the rise and fall of various civilizations, including the ancient city-states of Ebla and Mari. In the 1st millennium BCE, the area was part of the Assyrian and Babylonian empires.
Syria’s most significant historical contribution came during the Hellenistic period when Alexander the Great’s conquest led to the spread of Greek culture and the founding of cities like Antioch. Subsequently, the region became a part of the Roman and Byzantine empires.
In the 7th century CE, Syria was conquered by the Arab Muslims during the Islamic expansion. It became a center of Islamic civilization and played a crucial role in the Islamic Golden Age. The city of Damascus, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, became an important cultural and commercial hub.
Culture:Syria’s cultural heritage is diverse and reflects the influences of its rich history and various civilizations. The country is renowned for its contributions to literature, art, and architecture. Arabic literature, in particular, has a significant presence, with iconic poets like Al-Mutanabbi and Nizar Qabbani leaving a lasting impact.
Syrian cuisine is renowned for its delicious dishes, such as hummus, falafel, and shawarma. Traditional music, dance, and storytelling continue to be cherished parts of the cultural fabric.
Economic:Syria’s economy has historically relied on agriculture, industry, and trade. The country is known for producing wheat, barley, cotton, and olives. Industries include textiles, food processing, and petroleum refining.
However, Syria’s economic stability has been severely affected by long periods of political instability, corruption, and, most significantly, the ongoing civil war that began in 2011. The conflict has led to extensive destruction of infrastructure, loss of human capital, and displacement of millions of Syrians, resulting in a severe economic downturn.
Politics:Syria has experienced a complex political history marked by periods of authoritarian rule. After gaining independence from France in 1946, the country witnessed political instability with multiple coups and military interventions. In 1970, Hafez al-Assad seized power in a coup and established a Ba’athist regime, which continues to be a dominant force in Syrian politics.
Hafez al-Assad’s son, Bashar al-Assad, assumed power in 2000 and became President. His rule has been marked by both authoritarian control and limited political reforms. In 2011, Syria experienced a massive wave of civil protests during the Arab Spring, which evolved into a full-scale civil war, leading to one of the most devastating humanitarian crises of the 21st century.
The conflict in Syria has drawn international attention and involvement, with various regional and global powers supporting different factions in the war.
Challenges and Prospects:Syria faces immense challenges as it grapples with the aftermath of a prolonged and devastating civil war. The destruction of infrastructure, loss of human lives, and displacement of communities have left deep scars that will require long-term efforts to heal and rebuild.
The political landscape remains complex, with ongoing tensions and power struggles. Finding a lasting political solution that addresses the grievances of all stakeholders while preserving Syria’s territorial integrity is crucial for lasting stability and peace.
Despite these challenges, Syria’s resilient people and rich cultural heritage offer hope for a brighter future. With the support of the international community, Syria has the potential to rebuild and revive its economy and society, ushering in a new era of peace and prosperity for its citizens.
In conclusion, Syria’s history and culture are a testament to the resilience of its people and the diversity of its heritage. While facing significant challenges, Syria’s potential for growth and development remains, contingent on finding a sustainable political solution and fostering a collective commitment to rebuilding the nation and preserving its unique identity.
Types of company registration
Limited Liability Company (LLC):An LLC is a common form of business entity in Syria.
It requires at least two partners and has a minimum required capital.
Liability is limited to the company’s assets.
Management is typically vested in one or more general managers.
Joint Stock Company (JSC):A JSC can be a public or private company.
Requires a minimum number of shareholders.
The liability of shareholders is limited to their subscribed capital.
Public JSCs can offer shares to the public through the stock exchange.
Partnership Limited by Shares:A form of partnership where there are general partners who are jointly and personally liable, and limited partners whose liability is limited to their capital contributions.
Branch Office:Foreign companies can establish branch offices in Syria to carry out specific activities.
The branch office operates as an extension of the foreign company and must adhere to local regulations.
Representative Office:Representative offices are used for non-commercial activities such as market research and promotional activities.
They do not engage in profit-generating activities.
Sole Proprietorship:Individuals can establish a sole proprietorship, allowing them to conduct business activities under their own name.
Personal liability is not limited in this type of business.
Public Corporation:Public corporations are established by a special law and may involve significant government ownership and control.
Cooperative Society:Cooperatives are formed by individuals with shared economic interests to achieve common goals.
Professional Corporations:Professionals such as lawyers, doctors, and engineers can establish professional corporations to offer their services.
Advantages of company registration in Syria
Access to Local Markets: Registering a company in Syria may provide access to the local market, which could be advantageous if there are specific business opportunities that align with the country’s needs and demands.
Resource Potential: Syria possesses natural resources, including oil, natural gas, and agricultural land. Companies involved in resource extraction and related industries might find opportunities in the country.
Cost of Labor: Labor costs in Syria have historically been relatively low compared to many other countries. This could potentially benefit businesses looking for cost-effective labor.
Local Partnerships: In some cases, local partnerships may be advantageous for certain business activities. Collaborating with local partners can provide insights into the market and help navigate local regulations.
It’s crucial to approach the prospect of company registration in Syria with caution and to conduct a thorough risk assessment. The ongoing conflict and the impact of international sanctions have created significant challenges for businesses, including political instability, security risks, and restricted access to financial services. The legal and regulatory framework may have also changed due to the conflict.
Before considering company registration in Syria, it is strongly recommended to consult with experts who have up-to-date knowledge of the situation, assess security conditions, consider international sanctions, and conduct comprehensive market research. Additionally, engaging with local partners who are knowledgeable about the environment and can navigate potential risks may be essential.
What types of legal entities can be registered in Syria?
Legal entities in Syria can include sole proprietorships, partnerships, limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, and more.
What is the minimum capital requirement for company registration in Syria?
The minimum capital requirement can vary depending on the type of business and location, but there may not always be a strict minimum.
What are the steps to register a company in Syria?
The registration process typically involves name reservation, drafting the company’s bylaws, obtaining required licenses, and registering with the relevant authorities.
Do I need a local partner to register a company in Syria?
Depending on the business activities, you may or may not require a local partner. Legal requirements may change over time.
Is there a streamlined process for foreign investors to register a company in Syria?
Foreign investors may face additional requirements, approvals, and restrictions, depending on the nature of the business.
What are the main regulatory authorities responsible for company registration in Syria?
The Ministry of Internal Trade and Consumer Protection and the Ministry of Economy are among the key authorities involved in company registration.
What are the tax obligations for registered companies in Syria?
The tax structure in Syria includes corporate income tax, value-added tax (VAT), and other applicable taxes. Tax rates and regulations can change.
Are there any sector-specific licenses or permits required for certain businesses?
Yes, certain business activities may require sector-specific licenses or permits from relevant ministries and authorities.
Can a foreigner be the sole owner of a company in Syria?
Depending on the business activities, foreigners may be able to own a company outright or in partnership with a local partner.
What are the ongoing compliance requirements for registered companies in Syria?
Ongoing compliance may include submitting annual financial reports, renewing licenses, and fulfilling tax obligations.
Documents required to register a company
Commercial Register Application: You will need to submit an application to the Commercial Register at the Ministry of Internal Trade and Consumer Protection. This application should include details about the company’s name, legal form, activities, and location.
Memorandum of Association (MOA): The MOA outlines the company’s structure, objectives, and the rights and obligations of its shareholders. It must be drafted and notarized according to Syrian regulations.
Articles of Association (AOA): The AOA provides additional details about the company’s internal workings, management structure, and governance.
Bank Certificate: You must provide a certificate from a local Syrian bank confirming the deposit of the company’s share capital.
Bank Account Opening Certificate: A certificate from the bank where you’ve opened your company’s account.
Lease Agreement: A notarized lease agreement for your company’s premises in Syria is typically required.
Certification of Company Name: You need to obtain approval for the company name from the relevant authorities.
Tax Card: You may be required to obtain a tax card for your company.
Public Notary Attestation: Various documents, including the MOA, may need to be notarized by a public notary.
Local Partner Agreement (if applicable): If you are forming a partnership with a local Syrian partner, an agreement with the local partner is typically required.
Approval from Relevant Ministries (if applicable): Depending on the nature of your business, you may need to obtain approvals or licenses from specific ministries or government bodies.
Environmental Impact Assessment (if applicable): Some businesses, particularly those with potential environmental impacts, may be required to submit an environmental impact assessment.
Major Banks in Syria
Commercial Bank of Syria
Agricultural Co-operative Bank
Bank of Syria and Overseas
Industrial Bank of Syria
International Islamic Bank for Investment and Development
Syrian Lebanese Commercial Bank
Bank of Jordan – Syria
The top universities in Syria
University of Damascus
University of Aleppo
University of Hama
University of Latakia
Arab International University
Damascus University of Science and Technology
Higher Institute of Business Administration (HIBA)
Syrian Virtual University
Strange or unusual to visitors in Syria
Hospitality and Generosity: Syrian people are known for their warm hospitality and generosity. It’s not uncommon for locals to invite strangers into their homes for tea or a meal, which might be surprising to some visitors.
Traditional Souks (Markets): The vibrant and bustling traditional markets, or souks, can be overwhelming to visitors due to the diversity of goods, sounds, and smells.
Language Barrier: Arabic is the official language, and while many Syrians speak some English, there might still be a language barrier in certain areas.
Gender Segregation: In more conservative areas, there might be gender segregation in public spaces, such as separate seating areas for men and women.
Ramadan Observance: During the holy month of Ramadan, many businesses and restaurants are closed during daylight hours. Eating, drinking, and smoking in public are generally discouraged during this time.
Call to Prayer: The call to prayer from mosques is a common occurrence throughout the day and might be unfamiliar to visitors from non-Muslim majority countries.
Historical and Cultural Sites: Syria has a rich history and is home to many ancient sites and ruins, some of which may not have the same level of crowd control or preservation as seen in Western countries.
Traditional Clothing: Seeing people wearing traditional clothing, such as the thobe (robe) for men and abaya (cloak) for women, is common and might stand out to visitors.
Public Transportation: Public transportation might differ from what visitors are accustomed to, with shared taxis and buses being popular modes of travel.
Religious Practices: Visitors might find the level of religiosity and the role of Islam in daily life different from what they are used to.
Cultural Norms: Handshakes and greetings might vary from region to region. Some Syrians might greet with a kiss on both cheeks.
Photography Restrictions: In some areas, particularly around military installations and government buildings, photography might be restricted or prohibited.
Security Measures: Increased security measures, such as checkpoints and bag checks, may be more prevalent due to the country’s recent history.
Public Displays of Affection: Public displays of affection, such as hugging and kissing, might be considered inappropriate in certain settings.
Power and Water Outages: Visitors might experience intermittent power and water outages due to infrastructure challenges.
Local Customs: Learning and respecting local customs, such as removing shoes before entering homes and using the right hand for eating, is important.
“Tips for Newcomers: Adjusting to Life in Syria”
Learn the Language: While Arabic is the official language, learning some basic phrases and expressions can greatly enhance your interactions and help you integrate into the local community.
Understand the Culture: Familiarize yourself with Syrian customs, traditions, and social norms to navigate daily life more smoothly and show respect for the local culture.
Be Patient: Adjusting to a new environment takes time. Be patient with yourself as you adapt to the local way of life and build new routines.
Engage with Locals: Make an effort to connect with locals, whether through language classes, community events, or social gatherings. Building relationships will enrich your experience.
Respect Religious Practices: Syria has a strong Islamic heritage. Respect local religious practices, such as prayer times and observance of Ramadan.
Try Local Cuisine: Explore Syrian cuisine and try traditional dishes. Sharing meals with locals is a great way to bond and immerse yourself in the culture.
Stay Informed: Keep abreast of local news and developments to ensure your safety and stay aware of any changes that may affect your daily life.
Adapt Clothing Choices: Respect local dress codes, particularly in conservative areas. Dress modestly, especially for women, to blend in and show cultural sensitivity.
Navigating Markets (Souks): Embrace the vibrant markets and souks but be prepared to negotiate prices and be cautious of your belongings in crowded areas.
Transportation Options: Familiarize yourself with local transportation methods, whether it’s public buses, shared taxis, or other forms of travel.
Health and Hygiene: Be aware of health considerations, including safe drinking water and appropriate healthcare options. Seek medical advice and vaccinations if needed.
Cultural Etiquette: Learn about local customs, gestures, and greetings to ensure respectful interactions with Syrians.
Weather and Climate: Prepare for Syria’s varying weather conditions, from hot summers to colder winters, and adapt your clothing and activities accordingly.
Security Awareness: Stay informed about local security conditions and follow any advisories from your embassy or local authorities.
Document Requirements: Ensure you have all the necessary documentation, permits, and visas for your stay in Syria.
Stay Connected: Use local SIM cards and communication apps to stay connected with family and friends while staying respectful of local norms.
Seek Local Advice: Engage with expat communities or local acquaintances for insights, advice, and recommendations on daily life.
Explore Cultural Sites: Syria has a rich history with many cultural and historical sites. Take time to explore and appreciate its heritage.
Be Open-Minded: Embrace new experiences, be open to learning, and approach challenges with a positive attitude.
Safety First: Prioritize your safety and well-being at all times. Follow local laws, be cautious in unfamiliar areas, and avoid risky behaviors.
Top recruitment agencies in Syria
Al Tameer Group
Yasser Arafat Foundation (YAF)
Basma Employment Services
Al Ahram Employment Group
Necessary phone numbers in Syria
General Emergency Hotline:
112 (This number can be used for various emergencies and will direct you to the appropriate service.)
Hospitals and Medical Services:
Ministry of Health Hotline: 156 (For medical assistance and information)
Tourist Police Hotline: 16
Lost or Stolen Credit Cards:
Local Syrian Banks’ Customer Service: You may find specific numbers on the back of your credit card.
Embassies and Consulates:
Contact information for your country’s embassy or consulate in Syria.
Public transportation services may have specific hotlines for inquiries or assistance.
Electricity and Water Supply: You may find local utility emergency numbers provided by the service providers.
Best Way to immigrate to Syria
Immigrating to Syria can be a complex and challenging process, and the political and security situation in the country has been unstable due to ongoing conflict. As of my last knowledge update in January 2022, it’s essential to consider that the security and humanitarian situation in Syria may have evolved since then. Additionally, international travel to Syria may be subject to travel advisories and restrictions due to ongoing conflict and instability.
If you are considering immigrating to Syria, it is strongly advised to consult with your country’s government for the most up-to-date information and travel advisories related to Syria. However, given the challenging circumstances in the country, it’s crucial to prioritize your safety and well-being.