Official Name: Poland
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Poland, officially known as the Republic of Poland, is a Central European country with a population of around 38 million people. It is bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania, and Russia to the north. Poland has a rich history, culture, and economy that have contributed to its present-day status as a major player in Europe.
Poland’s history dates back to the 10th century when the Piast dynasty established the first Polish state. Throughout the centuries, Poland experienced periods of great prosperity and achievement, as well as periods of foreign domination and struggle. During World War II, Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany, resulting in the deaths of millions of Polish citizens, including Jews in the Holocaust. After the war, Poland became a socialist state under Soviet influence until the fall of communism in 1989, leading to a transition to a democratic government.
Poland’s culture is a blend of Slavic and Western European influences. The country is known for its traditional folk music, dance, and festivals, as well as its rich history of art, literature, and theater. Polish cuisine is also renowned, with dishes such as pierogi, kielbasa, and bigos (cabbage stew) being popular staples. Religion is an important part of Polish culture, with Catholicism being the dominant religion.
Poland has one of the largest and most dynamic economies in Central and Eastern Europe. It is a member of the European Union and the World Trade Organization, and has a highly skilled workforce and a developed infrastructure. The country has a diverse economy with industries such as information technology, automotive, and manufacturing, and its main trading partners are Germany, Russia, and China.
Poland is a parliamentary republic with a president as the head of state and a prime minister as the head of government. The current political climate in Poland is characterized by a conservative government led by the Law and Justice Party, which has been criticized by some for its approach to issues such as the rule of law and civil liberties.
Overall, Poland is a vibrant and important country in Europe with a rich history and culture, a strong economy, and a complex political landscape. Its contributions to the world in areas such as science, music, and literature have been significant, and its people continue to shape and influence the world today.
Types of company registration
Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością (Sp. z o.o.) – This is the most popular form of company registration in Poland, similar to a limited liability company in other countries. It requires at least one shareholder and one director, and a minimum share capital of 5,000 PLN (around 1,200 EUR). Shareholders are not liable for the company’s debts and obligations beyond their share capital.
Spółka akcyjna (S.A.) – This is a joint-stock company, requiring at least one shareholder and a minimum share capital of 100,000 PLN (around 24,000 EUR). Shareholders are not personally liable for the company’s debts, and the company is managed by a board of directors.
Spółka komandytowa (Sp.k.) – This is a limited partnership company requiring at least one general partner who manages the company and has unlimited liability for its debts, and at least one limited partner who provides the capital but is not involved in the management and has limited liability.
Spółka jawna (S.j.) – This is a general partnership company requiring at least two partners who manage the company and have unlimited liability for its debts.
Spółka partnerska (Sp.p.) – This is a professional partnership company that can be registered by lawyers, architects, accountants, and other professionals who can practice their profession only in a partnership structure.
Spółka cywilna (S.c.) – This is a civil partnership company that is often used by individuals who want to run a business together. The partners have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and share the profits and losses.
The registration process for a company in Poland can be done online through the National Court Register (KRS) system, which requires filling out an application and submitting it to the register court. The process takes about two weeks, and the cost of registration depends on the type of company and the share capital.
Advantages of company registration in Poland
Strategic location: Poland is located in the heart of Europe, making it an ideal location for businesses looking to expand their operations across Europe. Its central location provides easy access to major markets in Western and Eastern Europe.
Skilled workforce: Poland has a large pool of well-educated and highly skilled workers. The country has a strong tradition of higher education and vocational training, producing a highly skilled workforce in a variety of sectors.
Low labor costs: Despite having a highly skilled workforce, labor costs in Poland are relatively low compared to other European countries. This makes it an attractive location for businesses looking to reduce their operating costs.
Favorable business climate: Poland has a pro-business environment with low taxes, simple procedures for setting up and running a business, and a transparent regulatory framework.
Growing economy: Poland has one of the fastest-growing economies in Europe, with a strong focus on innovation and entrepreneurship. The country is home to many successful startups and has a vibrant business community.
Access to EU funding: As a member of the European Union, Poland has access to a range of EU funding programs aimed at supporting innovation, research, and development.
Modern infrastructure: Poland has a modern and well-developed infrastructure, including a network of highways, airports, and seaports. This makes it easy to transport goods and services across the country and the wider region.
What are the types of companies that can be registered in Poland?
The types of companies that can be registered in Poland include a sole proprietorship, limited liability company, joint-stock company, partnership, and limited partnership.
What are the requirements to register a company in Poland?
The requirements to register a company in Poland include choosing a company name, appointing a director, preparing the company’s articles of association, having a registered office in Poland, and paying the registration fees.
What are the steps involved in registering a company in Poland?
The steps involved in registering a company in Poland include choosing a company name, appointing a director, preparing the company’s articles of association, opening a bank account, obtaining a tax identification number, registering the company in the National Court Register, and obtaining any necessary licenses and permits.
What documents are needed to register a company in Poland?
The documents needed to register a company in Poland include the company’s articles of association, a list of shareholders, the director’s identification documents, the lease agreement for the registered office, and the bank account opening documents.
How long does it take to register a company in Poland?
It typically takes around 2-3 weeks to register a company in Poland, but the time frame can vary depending on the complexity of the company’s structure and the availability of all necessary documents.
What is the minimum share capital required to register a company in Poland?
The minimum share capital required to register a limited liability company in Poland is PLN 5,000, while the minimum share capital for a joint-stock company is PLN 100,000.
Can a foreigner register a company in Poland?
Yes, a foreigner can register a company in Poland, but they will need to appoint a resident director and have a registered office in Poland.
What are the tax obligations for companies registered in Poland?
Companies registered in Poland are required to pay corporate income tax, value-added tax (VAT), and social security contributions for their employees.
What are the accounting requirements for companies registered in Poland?
Companies registered in Poland are required to keep accurate accounting records and submit annual financial statements to the tax authorities.
What is the legal framework governing company registration in Poland?
The legal framework governing company registration in Poland is primarily governed by the Commercial Companies Code and the National Court Register Act.
Can a registered company in Poland operate in other EU countries?
Yes, a registered company in Poland can operate in other EU countries by either opening a branch or subsidiary or by providing services through cross-border trade.
What are the advantages of registering a company in Poland?
The advantages of registering a company in Poland include a strategic location in the heart of Europe, a large and skilled labor force, a stable political and economic environment, and a supportive business climate.
What are the disadvantages of registering a company in Poland?
The disadvantages of registering a company in Poland include high bureaucracy, complex tax regulations, and a relatively high corporate income tax rate.
What are the costs involved in registering a company in Poland?
The costs involved in registering a company in Poland include the registration fee, notary fees, legal fees, and any other administrative costs associated with obtaining licenses and permits.
How can one apply for business licenses and permits in Poland?
One can apply for business licenses and permits in Poland by submitting the necessary documents to the relevant authorities, such as the Trade Office or the Environmental Protection Office.
Can one register a company in Poland without a physical address in the country?
No, one cannot register a company in Poland without a physical address in the country. The registered office is a legal requirement for company registration.
What is the process for changing the registered office address of a company in Poland?
To change the registered office address of a company in Poland, the company must submit an application to the National Court Register. The application must include the new registered office address and any necessary supporting documentation. Once the application is approved, the company must publish a notice of the change in a national newspaper and update any other relevant documents.
What is the process for changing the management of a registered company in Poland?
To change the management of a registered company in Poland, the company’s articles of association must be amended to reflect the changes. The amendment must be approved by the company’s shareholders and registered with the National Court Register.
How can one dissolve a registered company in Poland?
A registered company in Poland can be dissolved by submitting an application for liquidation to the National Court Register. The application must include information about the company’s assets and liabilities, and the appointment of a liquidator. Once the liquidation process is complete, the company will be removed from the National Court Register.
What happens to a registered company’s assets upon dissolution in Poland?
Upon dissolution, a registered company’s assets in Poland are liquidated and used to pay off any outstanding debts and liabilities. Any remaining assets will be distributed among the shareholders according to their ownership interests.
What are the regulations governing foreign investment in Poland?
Foreign investment in Poland is governed by the Act on Foreign Investments of 2015. The law provides for equal treatment of foreign investors and Polish investors, with some exceptions for national security and public order reasons.
Can foreign investors own 100% of a registered company in Poland?
Yes, foreign investors can own 100% of a registered company in Poland, with some exceptions for certain industries such as media and defense.
How can a foreign investor obtain a work permit in Poland?
A foreign investor can obtain a work permit in Poland by submitting an application to the appropriate regional office of the Voivodeship Office. The application must include information about the investor’s business activities and the proposed job position.
What are the regulations governing employment contracts in Poland?
Employment contracts in Poland are governed by the Labor Code. The Code sets out the minimum requirements for employment contracts, including the terms and conditions of employment, working hours, and remuneration.
What is the minimum wage in Poland?
The minimum wage in Poland is currently 2,800 PLN (approximately $715 USD) per month.
How are taxes calculated on employee salaries in Poland?
Taxes on employee salaries in Poland are calculated based on a progressive income tax system. The tax rates range from 17% to 32% depending on the employee’s income level.
What are the social security obligations for employers in Poland?
Employers in Poland are required to contribute to the national social security system, which provides benefits such as pensions, healthcare, and disability insurance to employees. The contribution rate is currently 19.52% of the employee’s gross salary.
What is the process for terminating an employment contract in Poland?
Employment contracts in Poland can be terminated by either the employer or the employee, with notice periods ranging from 2 weeks to 3 months depending on the length of service. In some cases, termination can also be carried out without notice if there is just cause.
How can one apply for a VAT number in Poland?
To apply for a VAT number in Poland, a company must register for VAT with the National Tax Administration. The application must include information about the company’s business activities and tax identification number.
What are the tax rates for different types of companies in Poland?
The standard corporate income tax rate in Poland is 19%. However, small businesses that meet certain criteria can benefit from a reduced tax rate of 9%. There are also special tax rates for companies involved in specific activities such as gambling or production of renewable energy.
What is the process for filing tax returns in Poland?
Companies in Poland are required to file tax returns on an annual basis. The deadline for filing tax returns is typically April 30th of the year following the tax year. Tax returns can be filed electronically using the government’s online tax portal or by submitting paper forms to the tax authority.
What are the regulations governing the use of trademarks in Poland?
Trademark law in Poland is governed by the Industrial Property Law. The law provides for the registration of trademarks, which can be registered for specific goods or services. Trademark owners have the exclusive right to use their marks and can take legal action against others who use their marks without permission.
How can one protect their intellectual property rights in Poland?
Intellectual property rights can be protected in Poland by obtaining patents, trademarks, and copyrights. These rights can be registered with the Polish Patent Office. In addition, intellectual property owners can take legal action against those who infringe on their rights.
What is the process for registering a trademark in Poland?
To register a trademark in Poland, an application must be filed with the Polish Patent Office. The application should include a description of the goods or services associated with the mark. The registration process typically takes several months to complete.
What are the regulations governing e-commerce in Poland?
E-commerce in Poland is governed by the Consumer Rights Act, which provides protections for online shoppers. This includes requirements for sellers to provide clear information about their products, pricing, and shipping policies. In addition, consumers have the right to cancel purchases within 14 days of receiving their order.
What is the process for registering a domain name in Poland?
Domain names can be registered through a number of accredited registrars in Poland. The registration process typically involves selecting a domain name and providing contact and billing information. The domain name must also comply with certain rules and regulations set forth by the Polish domain authority.
What are the regulations governing data protection in Poland?
Data protection in Poland is governed by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which is enforced by the Polish Data Protection Authority. The GDPR sets strict rules for the collection, use, and storage of personal data.
What are the regulations governing online privacy in Poland?
Online privacy in Poland is also governed by the GDPR. This includes requirements for companies to obtain consent from individuals before collecting their personal data, as well as obligations to protect that data from unauthorized access.
What are the regulations governing consumer protection in Poland?
Consumer protection in Poland is governed by the Consumer Rights Act. The law provides protections for consumers in areas such as product safety, pricing, and advertising. Consumers also have the right to file complaints and take legal action against businesses that violate their rights.
How can one apply for a building permit in Poland?
To apply for a building permit in Poland, an application must be submitted to the local government authority. The application should include detailed plans and specifications for the proposed construction project. The process for obtaining a building permit can take several months to complete.
What are the regulations governing construction projects in Poland?
Construction projects in Poland are regulated by the Construction Law. This law sets out requirements for building permits, construction standards, and safety regulations.
How can one obtain an environmental permit in Poland?
Answer: To obtain an environmental permit in Poland, an applicant must submit an application to the relevant authorities, along with necessary documents, such as an environmental impact assessment and other required permits. The authorities will evaluate the application and make a decision based on the impact the proposed project may have on the environment.
What are the regulations governing waste management in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing waste management in Poland are outlined in the Waste Act, which sets out the rules for collecting, transporting, and disposing of waste. The Act also requires waste producers to follow specific procedures for sorting, separating, and treating different types of waste.
What are the regulations governing water management in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing water management in Poland are primarily governed by the Water Law, which sets out rules for the protection and management of water resources, water quality, and water use. The law requires permits for the use of water resources, and sets out guidelines for water pollution prevention and control.
What are the regulations governing air pollution in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing air pollution in Poland are set out in the Air Protection Law, which sets standards for air quality, emissions limits for different types of pollutants, and regulates industrial activities and transportation that contribute to air pollution. The law also establishes penalties for violations of air pollution standards.
What are the regulations governing noise pollution in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing noise pollution in Poland are outlined in the Environmental Protection Law, which sets noise level limits for various types of activities, such as construction, transportation, and industrial operations. The law requires noise measurements to be taken, and sets out guidelines for noise mitigation and control.
What are the regulations governing food safety in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing food safety in Poland are set out in the Food Safety and Nutrition Act, which sets standards for food production, processing, and distribution, and establishes requirements for food labeling, packaging, and storage. The law also establishes food safety inspection procedures and sets out penalties for non-compliance.
What are the regulations governing transportation in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing transportation in Poland are set out in the Road Transport Law, which sets standards for road safety, vehicle requirements, driver qualifications, and freight transportation. The law also establishes requirements for public transportation, including regulations for taxi services and public transport schedules.
What are the regulations governing the use of drones in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing the use of drones in Poland are set out in the Aviation Law, which sets out requirements for drone pilots, drone registration, and drone operations. The law also establishes guidelines for drone safety, including restrictions on drone flights near airports, military installations, and other sensitive areas.
What are the regulations governing the use of public transportation in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing the use of public transportation in Poland are primarily governed by the Road Transport Law, which establishes requirements for public transport vehicles and services, including safety standards, routes, and schedules. The law also sets out regulations for fares, ticketing, and passenger rights.
What are the regulations governing the use of personal vehicles in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing the use of personal vehicles in Poland are primarily set out in the Road Traffic Law, which sets requirements for vehicle registration, driver licensing, vehicle safety, and traffic rules. The law also establishes penalties for traffic violations and sets out regulations for road safety.
What are the regulations governing road safety in Poland?
Answer: The regulations governing road safety in Poland are primarily set out in the Road Traffic Law, which establishes requirements for vehicle safety, driver behavior, and traffic rules. The law also sets out penalties for traffic violations, and sets requirements for road infrastructure, including signs, markings, and lighting.
How can one apply for a driver’s license in Poland?
To apply for a driver’s license in Poland, you must be at least 18 years of age and have completed a driving course at a registered driving school. The application process involves submitting an application form, a medical certificate, and proof of completing the driving course to the local office of the Provincial Road Transport Inspectorate (Wojewódzki Ośrodek Ruchu Drogowego). You will also need to pass a theoretical exam on the rules of the road and a practical driving exam. Once you have passed both exams, you will receive your driver’s license.
Documents required to register a company:
Articles of Association: This is a legal document that outlines the rules and regulations of the company.
Identification documents: The company’s founders, as well as its legal representatives, will need to provide their identification documents such as passports or ID cards.
Proof of address: The company’s founders and legal representatives will need to provide proof of their address, such as a utility bill or bank statement.
Proof of payment of share capital: This is a document that shows that the company’s founders have paid the required share capital into the company’s bank account.
Notarized power of attorney: If the company’s founders are unable to attend the registration process in person, they may need to provide a notarized power of attorney to a representative who can attend on their behalf.
Certificate of no criminal record: In some cases, the company’s founders and legal representatives may be required to provide a certificate of no criminal record.
Other documents: Depending on the type of company and the industry it operates in, additional documents may be required such as licenses, permits, and certificates.
Type of Banks in Poland
Commercial banks – These are the most common type of banks in Poland and are owned by private shareholders. They offer a wide range of financial services, including savings and checking accounts, loans, mortgages, and credit cards. Some of the benefits of commercial banks include accessibility, convenience, and flexibility in terms of services offered.
Cooperative banks – These are owned and operated by their members, who are typically local residents or businesses. Cooperative banks are focused on supporting the local community and often offer lower fees and interest rates compared to commercial banks. They are also more likely to offer specialized services tailored to the needs of their members.
Foreign banks – These are banks that are headquartered outside of Poland but have a presence in the country. They often specialize in international banking services and cater to clients who require cross-border transactions. Some foreign banks also offer services in English or other languages, which can be beneficial for expats or non-Polish speakers.
Internet banks – These are banks that operate exclusively online, with no physical branches. They offer many of the same services as traditional banks but with lower fees and higher interest rates. Some of the benefits of internet banks include convenience, 24/7 access to services, and the ability to manage accounts from anywhere with an internet connection.
Investment banks – These are banks that specialize in providing financial advice and assistance to businesses and individuals seeking to invest in stocks, bonds, and other financial products. They typically have a higher level of expertise in financial markets and can provide tailored investment strategies based on individual needs and goals.
There are several major banks operating in Poland, including:
PKO Bank Polski – This is the largest bank in Poland in terms of assets, offering a wide range of retail, corporate, and investment banking services. It operates a network of over 1,200 branches throughout the country and has a significant market share in both retail and corporate banking.
Bank Pekao – This is one of the oldest and most established banks in Poland, offering retail and corporate banking services as well as investment banking, asset management, and insurance. It operates over 500 branches throughout the country and has a strong reputation for stability and reliability.
Santander Bank Polska – This is a subsidiary of the Spanish banking giant Banco Santander, offering retail, corporate, and investment banking services. It operates a network of over 400 branches throughout the country and is known for its innovative digital banking solutions.
mBank – This is a modern digital bank that operates exclusively online, offering a wide range of banking services including savings and checking accounts, loans, and investments. It is known for its user-friendly mobile app and innovative digital products.
ING Bank Śląski – This is a subsidiary of the Dutch banking group ING, offering retail and corporate banking services as well as investment banking and asset management. It operates a network of over 400 branches throughout the country and is known for its innovative products and services.
Other notable banks operating in Poland include Alior Bank, BNP Paribas Bank Polska, and Raiffeisen Bank Polska.
The top universities in Poland
Jagiellonian University (QS World University Rankings 2022: 329) – Located in Kraków, the oldest and one of the most prestigious universities in Poland. It offers a wide range of courses across multiple faculties, including law, medicine, and humanities.
University of Warsaw (QS World University Rankings 2022: 349) – Located in the capital city of Warsaw, it is the largest university in Poland and one of the oldest. It offers a wide range of courses in fields such as law, economics, social sciences, and humanities.
Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (QS World University Rankings 2022: 551-600) – Located in Poznań, it is one of the top universities in Poland for humanities and social sciences. It offers courses in fields such as linguistics, literature, philosophy, and cultural studies.
AGH University of Science and Technology (QS World University Rankings 2022: 801-1000) – Located in Kraków, it is a leading technical university in Poland. It offers courses in fields such as computer science, electrical engineering, and mining and geology.
Warsaw University of Technology (QS World University Rankings 2022: 801-1000) – Located in Warsaw, it is one of the top technical universities in Poland. It offers courses in fields such as engineering, computer science, and architecture.
Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (QS World University Rankings 2022: 801-1000) – Located in Toruń, it is a leading university in Poland for natural sciences and medicine. It offers courses in fields such as astronomy, physics, and medicine.
Wrocław University of Science and Technology (QS World University Rankings 2022: 801-1000) – Located in Wrocław, it is one of the top technical universities in Poland. It offers courses in fields such as engineering, computer science, and architecture.
Note: The major courses offered by each university may vary and are subject to change. Please refer to the respective university websites for the latest information on their course offerings.
Strange or unusual to visitors in Poland
Greeting customs – In Poland, it is customary to greet someone with a handshake and maintain eye contact. It is also common to address someone using their title and last name, such as “pan” for a man or “pani” for a woman.
Food customs – Polish cuisine may be different from what some visitors are used to. Traditional dishes include pierogi (dumplings), bigos (a stew made with sauerkraut and meat), and kielbasa (sausage).
Language – Polish is a difficult language for many visitors to understand and pronounce, with its complex grammar and pronunciation.
Public transportation – Some visitors may find the public transportation system in Poland to be different from what they are used to, with trams and buses often crowded during peak hours.
Historical and cultural landmarks – Poland has a rich history and cultural heritage, with many landmarks and monuments that may be unfamiliar to visitors. For example, the Wieliczka Salt Mine, the Royal Castle in Warsaw, and the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum.
“Tips for Newcomers: Adjusting to Life in Poland”
Learn the language – While many people in Poland speak English, learning some basic Polish phrases can go a long way in helping you communicate with locals and making your daily life easier.
Embrace the culture – Poland has a rich cultural heritage, with traditional festivals, customs, and cuisine. Try to immerse yourself in the culture by attending local events and festivals, trying traditional dishes, and visiting museums and historical landmarks.
Make friends – Making new friends can help you feel more connected to your new home and make the transition easier. Join clubs, attend language classes or other activities that interest you to meet new people.
Understand the public transportation system – Public transportation in Poland is generally efficient and affordable, so take the time to familiarize yourself with the routes and schedules of buses, trams, and trains to get around the city with ease.
Explore the country – Poland is a beautiful country with many scenic locations and tourist attractions. Take advantage of your time here to explore new places and discover all that the country has to offer.
Stay informed – Keep up to date with local news and events by reading local newspapers and following news outlets online. This will help you stay informed about important developments and better understand the country and its people.
Be patient – Adjusting to life in a new country can be challenging, and it may take some time to get used to the new culture, language, and customs. Be patient with yourself and remember that it takes time to feel at home in a new place.
Top recruitment agencies in Poland
Adecco – https://www.adecco.pl/
Hays – https://www.hays.pl/
Manpower – https://www.manpower.pl/
Randstad – https://www.randstad.pl/
Michael Page – https://www.michaelpage.pl/
Gi Group – https://www.gigroup.pl/
Grupa Tempo – https://grupatempo.pl/
Necessary phone numbers in Poland
Emergency Services – 112 (for police, fire, and medical emergencies)
Police – 997 (for non-emergency police assistance)
Ambulance – 999 (for medical emergencies)
Fire Department – 998 (for fire and rescue emergencies)
Road Assistance – 981 (for roadside assistance in case of a breakdown)
Poison Control Center – 800 00 44 88 (for medical emergencies related to poisoning)
Tourist Information – 19 115 (for information about tourism and travel in Poland)
The best way to immigrate to Poland
Work permit – If you have a job offer from a Polish employer, you may be eligible for a work permit. The employer must apply for the permit on your behalf, and you must have the necessary qualifications and experience for the job.
Study – If you want to study in Poland, you can apply for a student visa. You will need to have been accepted to a recognized educational institution and have sufficient funds to support yourself during your studies.
Family reunification – If you have family members who are citizens or permanent residents of Poland, you may be eligible for family reunification. This typically applies to spouses, children, and parents of Polish citizens or permanent residents.
Business immigration – If you want to start a business in Poland, you may be eligible for a business visa. You will need to have a viable business plan and sufficient funds to support yourself and your business.
Investment – If you are willing to invest a significant amount of money in Poland, you may be eligible for an investor visa. The minimum investment amount and requirements vary depending on the type of investment.