Official Name: The Islamic Republic of Iran



            Rial (IRR)



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Iran: A Land of Rich History, Culture, and Complexities


Iran, known historically as Persia, boasts one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, dating back thousands of years. The region has been home to numerous great empires, including the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanian dynasties. The Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BCE, was one of the most significant, stretching from Egypt to India. It is known for its administrative efficiency and support for cultural diversity.

In the 7th century CE, the Islamic conquest transformed Persia into a Muslim-majority nation. The Islamic Golden Age brought significant advancements in various fields, including science, mathematics, and literature. However, the country faced periods of political instability, particularly during the Mongol invasions and later under the rule of the Safavids and Qajars.


Iran’s cultural heritage is rich and diverse, encompassing art, literature, music, and architecture. Persian literature, with luminaries such as Rumi, Hafez, and Ferdowsi, remains highly influential worldwide. Persian miniature painting, calligraphy, and intricate carpet weaving are admired forms of art. Iranian music includes classical, traditional, and modern genres, with traditional instruments like the santur and tar gaining international recognition.

Iranian cuisine is known for its flavorful dishes, such as kebabs, rice pilaf, and various stews like ghormeh sabzi and fesenjan. The country’s rich culinary history is a reflection of its geographical location along the ancient Silk Road, which facilitated the exchange of ideas and ingredients.


Iran has abundant natural resources, including oil, gas, minerals, and agricultural products. Historically, the country’s economy heavily relied on oil exports, making it vulnerable to fluctuations in global energy markets. However, economic sanctions imposed by the international community due to concerns about Iran’s nuclear program have significantly impacted its economy.

Despite these challenges, Iran has a well-developed industrial sector, producing automobiles, petrochemicals, and steel. Agriculture remains crucial, with wheat, rice, and fruits being major crops. Iran has also made strides in science and technology, particularly in the fields of medicine, engineering, and nuclear research.


Iran’s political landscape is complex, characterized by a mix of theocratic governance and democratic elements. Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, the country is officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran, led by a Supreme Leader and an elected President. The Supreme Leader holds significant authority over key decision-making processes, while the President serves as the head of government.

The political system has witnessed moments of both reform and conservatism, with various factions vying for power. The relationship between Iran and the international community has been marked by tensions, particularly concerning its nuclear program, human rights issues, and regional influence.

Challenges and Prospects:

Iran faces several challenges, including economic sanctions, unemployment, environmental issues, and the need for political reforms. However, it also holds vast potential for growth and development, given its educated population, rich cultural heritage, and natural resources.

The youth in Iran, in particular, seek greater political and social freedoms, pushing for changes within the system. The nation’s future will be shaped by how it addresses these internal and external challenges while preserving its historical and cultural identity.

In conclusion, Iran’s history is a tapestry of greatness and complexity, woven through millennia of achievements and challenges. Its culture continues to inspire the world, while its politics and economy navigate a path towards stability and progress. As Iran moves forward, its ability to embrace diversity, nurture its heritage, and adapt to changing global dynamics will play a crucial role in shaping its destiny on the world stage.

Types of companies in Iran

Iran has a diverse economy with various types of companies operating across different sectors. Here are some common types of companies found in Iran, along with brief details about each:

State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs):

    • These are companies that are owned and operated by the Iranian government. They play a significant role in various sectors, including energy, telecommunications, and transportation. Examples include the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) and the National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC).
  • Private Companies:
    • Private companies are owned and operated by individuals, groups, or corporations. They cover a wide range of industries, including manufacturing, services, and retail. Private companies contribute significantly to Iran’s economy.
  • Joint Ventures:
    • Joint ventures in Iran involve partnerships between domestic and foreign companies. These collaborations are often established to access Iran’s market and resources. They can operate in various sectors, such as automotive manufacturing and oil and gas exploration.
  • Financial Institutions:
    • Iran has a banking and financial sector that includes banks, credit institutions, and insurance companies. Major banks include Bank Melli Iran, Bank Sepah, and Bank Pasargad.
  • Export and Import Companies:
    • These companies specialize in international trade, facilitating the import and export of goods between Iran and other countries. They play a vital role in Iran’s global commerce.
  • Manufacturing Companies:
    • Iran has a diverse manufacturing sector that produces a wide range of products, including automobiles, electronics, textiles, and pharmaceuticals. Companies like Iran Khodro and Saipa are prominent in the automotive industry.
  • Technology and IT Companies:
    • Iran has a growing technology and IT sector, with companies involved in software development, hardware production, and IT services. Tehran is a hub for tech startups and innovation.
  • Construction and Engineering Firms:
    • Given Iran’s infrastructure development needs, construction and engineering companies are actively involved in projects ranging from real estate and transportation to energy and infrastructure development.
  • Retail and Consumer Goods Companies:
    • Retail businesses, including supermarkets, shopping malls, and consumer goods stores, are prevalent across Iran. Iranian consumers have diverse preferences and demands.
  • Tourism and Hospitality:
    • With the growth of tourism in Iran, there are companies operating in the hospitality sector, including hotels, travel agencies, and tour operators, catering to both domestic and international tourists.
  • Mining and Natural Resources:
    • Iran is rich in natural resources, including oil, natural gas, minerals, and metals. Companies in this sector are involved in exploration, extraction, and processing of these resources.
  • Agricultural and Food Companies:
    • Iran has a strong agricultural sector producing a wide variety of crops and food products. Companies range from agribusinesses to food processing and distribution.
  • Healthcare and Pharmaceuticals:
    • Iran has a growing healthcare and pharmaceutical industry, with companies manufacturing medicines, medical equipment, and providing healthcare services.
  • Transport and Logistics:
    • Companies in the transport and logistics sector operate in road, rail, air, and sea transportation, as well as cargo handling, warehousing, and distribution.
  • Renewable Energy and Green Technology:
    • As Iran seeks to diversify its energy sources, companies involved in renewable energy, solar power, and green technology have gained importance.

Common questions

What is the process for registering a company in Iran?

The process involves several steps, including obtaining the necessary permits, choosing a company name, drafting the articles of association, and registering with the Companies Registration Office.

How long does it take to register a company in Iran?

The registration process can take several weeks to a few months, depending on the complexity of the company and any regulatory changes.

What documents are required for company registration?

Commonly required documents include the company’s articles of association, proof of capital, and identity documents of shareholders and directors.

Is it necessary to have a local partner to register a company in Iran?

In most cases, foreign investors can register a company in Iran without a local partner. However, certain industries may have restrictions.

What is the role of the Companies Registration Office in Iran?

The Companies Registration Office is responsible for overseeing the registration and administration of companies in Iran.

Can a foreign company register a branch office in Iran?

Yes, foreign companies can register branch offices in Iran. The branch office is subject to Iranian laws and regulations.

Is it necessary to obtain business licenses for certain activities?

Yes, depending on the nature of your business activities, you may need specific licenses and permits from relevant authorities.

Is there a minimum number of employees required for a company in Iran?

There is no specific minimum number of employees required, but labor laws and regulations apply.

Can a foreigner serve as a director of an Iranian company?

Yes, foreigners can serve as directors of Iranian companies, but they must meet certain requirements.

Is it necessary to have a local bank account for the company?

It is advisable to have a local bank account for financial transactions related to the company.

What are the reporting requirements for companies in Iran?

Companies in Iran are required to file annual financial reports and tax returns.

What is the process for closing a company in Iran?

Closing a company typically involves several steps, including settling debts, obtaining approvals, and deregistering with relevant authorities.

Company Types:

What types of companies can be registered in Iran?

Common types include private limited companies, joint-stock companies, and limited liability companies (LLCs).

What is the minimum capital requirement for company registration?

The minimum capital requirement varies depending on the type of company. For example, a private limited company typically requires at least IRR 1,000,000,000 in capital.

How many shareholders are required to register a company in Iran?

A private limited company in Iran can be registered with a minimum of one shareholder.

Can a company change its legal structure after registration?

Changing the legal structure may be possible, but it involves a legal process and regulatory approvals.

Can a company in Iran own intellectual property rights?

Yes, companies can own and protect intellectual property rights in Iran.

Legal Compliance:

What are the tax implications of registering a company in Iran?

Companies in Iran are subject to corporate income tax, value-added tax (VAT), and other taxes depending on their activities and earnings.

Do I need a physical office space to register a company?

Yes, a registered address is required for company registration. This can be a physical office space or a legal address.

Are there any environmental regulations for businesses in Iran?

Yes, Iran has environmental regulations that businesses must comply with, including permits for certain activities.

What are the rules for advertising and marketing for businesses in Iran?

Advertising and marketing are subject to regulations and oversight by relevant authorities.

Are there export controls for certain products or technologies?

Yes, Iran has export controls in place, particularly for sensitive products and technologies.

What is the legal framework for dispute resolution in business contracts?

Dispute resolution may involve negotiation, mediation, arbitration, or litigation, depending on the terms of the contract and the parties involved.

Is there a requirement for an audit of financial statements for companies in Iran?

Yes, financial statements of companies in Iran are subject to audit by registered auditors.

What are the intellectual property rights for businesses in Iran?

Iran has intellectual property laws that protect trademarks, copyrights, and patents.

Foreign Investment:

Is it necessary to have a local partner to register a company in Iran?

In most cases, foreign investors can register a company in Iran without a local partner. However, certain industries may have restrictions.

What is the role of the Iran Chamber of Commerce in business registration?

The Iran Chamber of Commerce plays a role in representing the interests of the business community but is not directly involved in registration.

Can a foreign company establish a representative office in Iran?

Yes, foreign companies can establish representative offices in Iran for specific purposes, such as market research.

What is the legal framework for repatriating profits and capital for foreign investors?

Regulations exist for repatriating profits and capital, but they may vary depending on the industry and investment structure.

Are there special incentives for foreign investors in Iran?

Iran has offered incentives to attract foreign investment in certain sectors, including energy and manufacturing.

Are there restrictions on foreign ownership in certain sectors?

Certain sectors, such as banking and media, may have restrictions on foreign ownership.

What are the rules for hiring foreign employees in Iran?

Hiring foreign employees may require obtaining work permits and visas for them.

What are the rules for foreign exchange transactions for businesses?

Foreign exchange transactions are subject to regulations, and currency exchange rates are determined by the Central Bank of Iran.

Industry-Specific Questions:

Can a company in Iran engage in international trade?

Yes, Iranian companies can engage in international trade, subject to export-import regulations.

Can a company in Iran engage in e-commerce activities?

Yes, companies in Iran can engage in e-commerce activities, subject to relevant regulations.

Can a company in Iran issue shares to the public?

Yes, joint-stock companies can issue shares to the public, subject to regulatory approvals.

Can a foreign company purchase real estate in Iran?

Foreign companies may be allowed to purchase

Major Banks in Iran


Central Bank of Iran (CBI)

Website: www.cbi.ir

Bank Melli Iran

Website: www.bmi.ir

Bank Sepah

Website: www.sepahbank.com

Bank Pasargad

Website: www.bankpasargad.com

Tejarat Bank

Website: www.tejaratbank.ir

Saman Bank

Website: www.sb24.com

Bank Mellat

Website: www.bmi.ir

Parsian Bank

Website: www.parsian-bank.ir

Bank Saderat Iran

Website: www.bsibank.ir

Bank Keshavarzi (Agricultural Bank of Iran)

Website: www.bki.ir

Karafarin Bank

Website: www.karafarinbank.ir

EN Bank

Website: www.enbank.ir

Bank of Industry and Mine

Website: www.bim.ir

Mehr Iran Credit Union

Website: www.mehr.ir

Refah Bank

Website: www.refah-bank.ir

Ghavamin Bank

Website: www.ghbank.ir

Eghtesad Novin Bank

Website: www.enbank.ir

Sarmayeh Bank

Website: www.sb24.com

Bank Maskan

Website: www.bankmaskan.ir

Hekmat Iranian Bank

Website: www.hib24.ir

The top universities in Iran


University of Tehran

  • Website: www.ut.ac.ir
  • Location: Tehran
  • Major Courses: Offers a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs in various fields, including humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and more.                                         Sharif University of Technology
  • Website: www.sharif.edu
  • Location: Tehran
  • Major Courses: Known for its strong programs in engineering, science, and technology fields          Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)
  • Website: www.aut.ac.ir
  • Location: Tehran
  • Major Courses: Offers programs in engineering, natural sciences, and humanities.                                     Isfahan University of Technology
  • Website: www.iut.ac.ir
  • Location: Isfahan
  • Major Courses: Strong emphasis on engineering and technology-related fields.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences

  • Website: www.tums.ac.ir
  • Location: Tehran
  • Major Courses: Offers a wide range of programs in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, public health, and related fields.

Iran University of Science and Technology

  • Website: www.iust.ac.ir
  • Location: Tehran
  • Major Courses: Focuses on engineering and technical disciplines.

Shiraz University

  • Website: www.shirazu.ac.ir
  • Location: Shiraz
  • Major Courses: Offers programs in various fields, including humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering.

University of Isfahan

  • Website: www.ui.ac.ir
  • Location: Isfahan
  • Major Courses: Offers a wide range of undergraduate and postgraduate programs across different disciplines.

Kharazmi University

  • Website: www.khu.ac.ir
  • Location: Tehran
  • Major Courses: Offers programs in various fields, including humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering.

University of Tabriz

  • Website: www.tabrizu.ac.ir
  • Location: Tabriz
  • Major Courses: Provides a variety of programs in different academic disciplines.

“If you need assistance registering for college or university, our team is here to help.”

Strange or unusual to visitors in Iran


  • Dress Code: Iran has a dress code, and both men and women are required to dress modestly in public. Women must wear a headscarf and a long coat or tunic. Men should avoid shorts and sleeveless shirts in public.
  • Hospitality: Iranians are known for their warm hospitality. It’s common for people to invite guests into their homes and offer tea or snacks as a sign of welcome.
  • Persian Cuisine: Iranian cuisine is diverse and flavorful, featuring dishes like kebabs, rice pilaf, and stews. Some visitors might find the use of saffron and pomegranates in dishes unique.
  • Tea Culture: Tea is a significant part of Iranian culture, and it’s customary to serve tea to guests. You’ll often find people enjoying tea in cafes and homes.
  • No Alcohol: Iran has strict laws against the consumption of alcohol, and it’s not available in public places. However, non-alcoholic alternatives like herbal drinks are widely available.
  • Bazaars: Iran’s bazaars are vibrant and bustling markets where you can find everything from spices to carpets. Haggling is common when shopping in these markets.
  • Friday Prayer: On Fridays, the Islamic day of rest, you might notice that businesses close during the midday Friday prayer.
  • Nose Jobs: Iran has one of the highest rates of rhinoplasty (nose jobs) in the world, and it’s common for people to undergo cosmetic surgery.
  • Tomb of Cyrus the Great: The tomb of Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, is a significant historical site in Iran, and visitors are often fascinated by its historical importance.
  • Calligraphy and Art: Persian calligraphy and art are highly regarded, and you’ll find intricate designs and artwork in mosques, palaces, and even everyday objects.
  • Poetry: Iranians have a deep appreciation for poetry, and the works of famous Persian poets like Rumi and Hafez continue to be widely celebrated.
  • Traffic and Driving: Traffic in major Iranian cities can be chaotic, and the rules of the road may not always be strictly followed.
  • Local Markets: Street markets and vendors selling fresh produce and goods are common, creating a vibrant atmosphere in cities and towns.
  • Shiraz Gardens: The city of Shiraz is known for its beautiful gardens, such as the Eram Garden, which feature traditional Persian garden design.
  • Ta’arof: Ta’arof is a form of politeness where people may offer things multiple times as a sign of courtesy. Visitors might find it initially confusing but appreciate the gesture.

“Tips for Newcomers: Adjusting to Life in Iran”


Learn About the Culture and History:

Take the time to learn about Iran’s rich culture and history. Understanding the background and traditions can help you navigate social interactions more smoothly.

Respect Local Customs and Traditions:

Iranians have a strong sense of etiquette and politeness. Be mindful of local customs, such as removing your shoes when entering someone’s home, and showing respect to elders.

Dress Modestly:

Dress modestly and in accordance with local customs, especially for women. This includes wearing a headscarf and covering your arms and legs in public.

Learn Some Basic Persian Phrases:

While many Iranians speak English, learning some basic Persian phrases can go a long way in building relationships and showing respect for the local culture.

Enjoy Persian Cuisine:

Embrace the diverse and delicious Iranian cuisine. Don’t miss the opportunity to try traditional dishes like kebabs, biryani, and various stews.

Participate in Local Festivals:

Join in local celebrations and festivals, such as Nowruz (Persian New Year), to experience the vibrant culture and traditions of Iran.

Tea Culture:

Tea is a big part of Iranian culture. Accept offers of tea when visiting people’s homes, as it’s a sign of hospitality.

Social Interaction:

Iranians are generally warm and welcoming. Don’t be surprised if you’re invited to someone’s home; it’s a common practice. Bring a small gift as a token of appreciation.

Friday Prayer and Holidays:

Be aware of Friday prayer times, as businesses may close during the midday prayer. Familiarize yourself with the Iranian calendar, which includes both Islamic and Persian holidays.

Transportation and Traffic:

Be prepared for traffic congestion in major cities, especially during rush hours. Public transportation and taxis are commonly used for getting around.

Currency and Banking:

Familiarize yourself with the Iranian currency (Rial) and the currency exchange process. International credit cards may not be widely accepted, so carry cash.

Healthcare and Insurance:

Ensure you have health insurance that covers medical expenses in Iran. The country has a well-developed healthcare system, but it’s important to have insurance in case of emergencies.

Safety and Security:

Iran is generally a safe country for travelers, but like anywhere else, it’s important to exercise caution and stay informed about local safety guidelines.

Respect Religious Practices:

Iran is an Islamic country, and religious practices are deeply ingrained in daily life. Be respectful of religious customs and practices, even if they may differ from your own beliefs.

Stay Informed:

Keep up to date with local news and any travel advisories issued by your embassy or consulate. Political situations can change, so it’s essential to stay informed.

Stay Connected:

Establish a network of local friends and acquaintances who can help you navigate daily life and provide support when needed.

Travel Opportunities:

Take advantage of Iran’s diverse landscapes and historical sites. The country offers a wealth of opportunities for travel and exploration.

Patience and Flexibility:

Finally, be patient and flexible. Adjusting to a new culture and environment can take time, but with an open mind, you can make the most of your experience in Iran.

Top recruitment agencies in Iran


Website: www.irantalent.com

IranTalent is one of the leading job portals and recruitment agencies in Iran. They connect job seekers with employers in various industries.


Website: www.rozee.ir

Rozee is another prominent online job portal that offers a wide range of job listings and resources for job seekers and employers in Iran.

Iranian Jobs:

Website: www.iranianjobs.com

Iranian Jobs is a platform for job seekers and employers to find opportunities and talent in various sectors.


Website: www.darinvira.com

DarinVira is a recruitment agency in Iran that specializes in executive search and staffing services for businesses.


Website: www.noandishan.com

Noandishan offers recruitment and human resources consulting services to companies seeking to hire professionals in Iran.

Pardis Group:

Website: www.pardisgroup.com

Pardis Group provides recruitment and HR solutions to organizations in various sectors, including finance, engineering, and IT.

Fanavaran Pouyesh Farid

Website: www.pouyeshfarid.com

Fanavaran Pouyesh Farid is a recruitment and training company that serves clients in Iran and the Middle East.

Tavan Karyab:

Website: www.tavankaryab.com

Tavan Karyab offers recruitment and HR solutions, including personnel assessment and development services.


Website: www.iranjob.biz

IranJob is a job search and recruitment platform that connects job seekers with potential employers.


Website: www.karfa.net

Karfa offers HR and recruitment services, including candidate assessment and selection.

Necessary phone numbers in Iran


Emergency Services:

Police: 110

Fire Department: 125

Ambulance and Emergency Medical Services: 115

General Information and Assistance:

Directory Assistance: 118

Telephone Operator (Local and International Calls): 144

Tourist Information: 129

Iran Civil Aviation Organization:

Airport Information: 199

Iran Red Crescent Society:

Emergency Services and Ambulance: 148

Gas Emergency:

Gas Emergency Hotline: 123

Medical Emergency Hotlines:

AIDS and HIV Consultation: 109

Drug Addiction and Poisoning: 166

COVID-19 Hotline (As of my last update in September 2021):

COVID-19 Information Hotline: 4030

Electricity and Power Outages:

Power Outage Hotline: 129

Traffic Police:

Traffic Police Information: 141

Consumer Protection Organization:

Consumer Complaints: 182

Post and Postal Services:

Post Office Information: 180

Internet and Telecommunications:

Internet Technical Support: 198

Telecommunications Technical Support: 192


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